Psychoacoustics of sound reproduction
January 17, 2023 - What is the "ear-perceived" dynamic range of 16bit/44.1kHz and some older formats? Why is the typical answer ("dynamic range of 16 bits = 96 decibels") wrong? Why doesn't Signal-to-Noise Ratio and "dBA" tell the whole story? What is the dynamic range of an audio system in which low-level signal transmission is affected by noise? - Dispelling the misconceptions about SNR, dynamic range and noise perception... The article also contains a comparison of noise audibility threshold of popular audio formats (16/44k, vinyl, reel-to-reel tape).
December 20, 2021 - Fortunately, investigation of bit-depth and quantization doesn't require complicated and tiring ABX tests and only takes a few minutes. At the end of the article, there is a short analysis of what a 12-bit system can provide and why "12 bits" is so special.
November 2, 2021 - Does high-resolution audio sound better than CD? Investigation of the optimal sampling frequency and bit depth of distribution audio formats.
August 9, 2018 - Measurements of a fixed-point decoder and a floating-point decoder. 16-bit & 24-bit tests.
Loudspeakers & cables
May 14, 2019 - Main topics: Calculation of the minimum cross-section. Shielded and twisted speaker cables. Speaker wire plugs. Table with recommended cable length. Calculation of the inductance loss.
February 28, 2019 - Brief tutorial about audio interconnect cables.
April 25, 2018 - Approximation of the frequency response of a speaker cabinet on the rear axis with a first-order low-pass filter. With this method, the reflection from the wall behind the speaker can be calculated simply and with sufficient accuracy.
November 25, 2017 - Measuring the sound radiation of different types of woods used in speaker cabinets. The effect of cabinet damping material on the sound radiation.
November 21, 2016 - The placement of sound absorbing materials is critical to achieve maximum sound absorption in speaker cabinets.
October 20, 2020 - How does high output impedance affect the sound of headphones; some notes on the damping factor; output impedance and nonlinear distortion.
Guitar amplifiers & speakers
November 27, 2018 - Pre & post distortion filter measurements of a classic digital amp modeler.
November 9, 2018 - Popular misconceptions about tube guitar amplifiers and tube distortion.
February 26, 2019 - Measurements.
August 21, 2019 - Simulation of early reflections from the floor, ceiling and from the wall behind the speaker. Baffle size (baffle step) and speaker directivity are simulated as well.
August 23, 2019 - Rear wall reflection simulator with speaker cabinet (baffle step) simulation. Some extra notes on baffle diffraction.
August 12, 2019 - Simulation of a sound source between two parallel walls. Frequency response, CSD (waterfall), impulse response.
September 9, 2019 - There are plenty of tools to display directivity: polar diagram (polar chart), DI (directivity index) vs. frequency, sound power vs. frequency, sonogram, parametric frequency response graphs...